ABCs of IDA—Fragility, Conflict and Violence | International Development Association - World Bank | International Development Association - World Bank
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ABCs of IDA—Fragility, Conflict and Violence


A surge in violent conflict since 2010 has led to historically high levels of forced displacement. Globally, as of 2017, there are about 68 million refugees, internally displaced persons and asylum seekers who have fled their homes to escape violence, conflict and persecution. (In pdf: EN | AR | ES | FR | RU)

Fragility, conflict, and violence threaten to reverse development gains. The share of the extreme poor living in conflict-affected situations is expected to rise above 50% by 2030. Often, these situations lead to the displacement of populations, affecting them as well as the communities that host them.

The hardships these people endured through their displacement increases their vulnerability. Many suffer from trauma, and women and girls are at high-risk of gender-based violence. They need help to regain their agency and begin rebuilding their lives.

IDA supports countries affected by conflict and fragility by providing the financing and knowledge needed to rebuild resilient institutions and economies, reducing the risks of fragility and conflict, and putting in place the building blocks people need to resume peaceful and productive lives. IDA remains engaged in countries during active conflict, and through recovery and transition.

Exiting fragility is possible, but it requires the creation of well-functioning institutions. IDA’s flexible, predictable, and country-based model is particularly effective. IDA is a critical piece of the larger development equation, serving as a platform for donor coordination (including the implementation of multi-donor trust funds), and promoting transparency and accountability of both donors and states.

Despite overwhelming challenges, IDA’s support is helping countries in the transition from crisis and fragility to development. In Afghanistan, for example, IDA’s support has helped create 66 million days of work for skilled and unskilled workers and helped establish 45,751 community development councils across Afghanistan that are democratically elected through secret ballot.

The examples on the following pages illustrate how IDA-financed operations in fragile and conflict-affected states1 are making a difference. Be sure to see our other “ABCs” (achievements by country) of IDA, including highlights of our work on climate change, gender, jobs and economic transformation, and governance and institution building at

1 The countries included in this brochure are currently eligible for IDA support. To learn more, please visit



  • From 2003–17, the National Solidarity Program has generated over 66 million days of work for skilled and unskilled workers and has helped establish 45,751 community development councils across Afghanistan that are democratically elected through secret ballot.
  • From 2012–18, 1,450 kilometers of tertiary roads and 1,840 meters of tertiary bridges was completed, and more than 3,500 kilometers of tertiary roads have been maintained. During the same period, 860 kilometers of secondary roads and 2,319 meters of secondary bridges were completed, while 2.7 million jobs were created along these roads.
  • From 2010–18, 81,880 people were provided with sustainable employment opportunities through rural enterprises, with women making up 52% of the beneficiaries. 71% of SMEs supported by the project, 28% of which were female-owned, reported increased revenue.
  • From 2013–18, 27.4 million animals were vaccinated against Transboundary Animal Diseases (TADs), Zoonoses and production diseases. 453,239 producers were provided with technical assistance on improved production practices.
  • 20.4 million rural people were provided with access to an all-season road in 2018, up from 13.6 million in 2013. During the same period, the share of the rural population with access to an all-season road went up from 58% to 89%.
  • From 2013–18, 52,500 people benefited from easier access to financial services for micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs). The outstanding loan portfolio went up from USD 19.3 million in 2013 to USD 26.7 million in 2018.



  • From 2015-18, 21,739 farmers were using improved agricultural technology promoted by the project. During the same period, six million coffee plants were rejuvenated. In 2018, 77% of coffee cooperatives were legally registered, up from 31% in 2015.


Central African Republic

  • From 2016–18, 100,830 days of temporary work were generated benefiting 37,000 people, with women accounting for 27%. 57 new culverts were constructed, and 25 existing culverts were rehabilitated, 12 bridges were rehabilitated, and 63 kilometers of ditches along roadways were constructed.


  • From 2014–18, 414 health workers were trained to strengthen the institutional capacity and implement performance-based financing. From 2014–18, 100% health facilities were reporting monthly activities using a standard report forms in 2018, up from 65% in 2014.
  • In 2018, 6,383 companies registered through a single window facility, up from 3,000 in 2014. During the same period, 39 customs officers and inspectors were trained in areas such as customs valuation, rules of origin, and risk management.
  • From 2014–18, 50 SMEs in the meat value chain and dairy subsector were supported through the matching grant program, of which more than USD 700,00 was contributed by the private sector, while 416 workers received training to improve their performance and product quality.


  • From 2015–18, a safety net program generated 641,456 days of work, 69 poor communities were provided with social safety net and nutrition services access, and 106 health workers were trained in infant and young child feeding (IYCF) skills.

Democratic Republic of Congo

  • From 2015–18, 4,700 ex-combatants were demobilized and trained through a reintegration program. 3,786 ex-combatants finished their general and vocational training and were successfully reintegrated back into their communities.
  • Living Peace Institute, with IDA’s support, delivered training to 50 outreach officers in the National Program for Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (Unité d’Exécution du Programme National de Désarmement, Démobilisation et Réintégration - UEPNDDR) and promoted awareness of the psychosocial and mental health needs of the ex-combatants.
  • From 2014–18, 970,204 people from communities affected by forced displacement benefited from a livelihood support program, of whom 48.9% were women. 1,532 people benefited through cash-for-work, food-for-work, and public works programs. 581,715 days of work were generated, of which 269,800 days were for women.

Republic of Congo

  • From 2010–18, 1.1 million people in Brazzaville and Pointe Noire benefited from water, electricity, and urban development project. 331,710 people were provided with access to improved water sources and 259,340 people benefited from improved drainage and access to all-season roads.
  • From 2013–18, 328 youths received school-based skills training and 692 youths enrolled in apprenticeships that improved job and entrepreneurship skills. 479 microentrepreneurs enrolled in a pilot skills training program.
  • In 2017, two million people benefited from a health project, up from 900,000 in 2015, of whom 1.5 million were women. 89,118 children were immunized in 2017.

Côte d'Ivoire

  • 53,489 youths benefited from employment skills training  program in 2018, up from 25,422 in 2014. 62% of participants were employed or self-employed within six months of training.
  • 10,433 of youths were enrolled in temporary apprenticeship program in 2018. 92% of youth completed the training in 2018, up from 76 in 2016. 52% were employed or self-employed within six months of training. 14,959 youths received entrepreneurship training program in 2018, up from 11,248 in 2015.
  • From 2015–18, 2.5 million days of labor-intensive public works were generated and resulted in 3,491 kilometers of roads rehabilitated in 2018, up from 2,537 in 2014.
  • From 2015–18, 143,151 births were delivered at a health facility and attended by a trained health professional. 9,045 severely malnourished children were identified and treated. 371,640 of women received antenatal care during a visit to a health provider.



  • From 2014–18, 96,362 pregnant and lactating women, adolescent girls and children under age 5 received basic nutrition services, up from 7,117, and 69,492 women received antenatal care, up from 6,100. During the same period, 24,023 women gave birth attended by a qualified health practitioner, up from 1,026. 78.5% of children were fully immunized before their first birthday in 2018, up from 33% in 2012. 


The Gambia

  • From 2012–18, 1,140 kilometers of rural roads were rehabilitated, benefiting 1.4 million people and 22,588 households received piped water connections.


  • From 2010–18, 169,684 people benefited from a rural community-driven development project, of whom 49.5% were women.
  • From 2009–18, 12,452 students were enrolled in a new or rehabilitated classroom and 70,267 people were provided with access to an all-season new or rehabilitated road.



  • From 2013–18, 786 urban youth started or expanded household enterprises with support from start-up grants.
  • 1.9 million people received essential health, nutrition, and population services in 2017, up from 1.3 million in 2013.
  • From 2015–18, 7,224 benefited from safety nets programs; 3,612 rural youths completed life skills training, and 105,360 days of public works were generated.



  • From 2014–18, 22,718 out-of-school youth were enrolled in a skills training program, 4,858 were enrolled in apprenticeship, and 654 completed business plans under an entrepreneurship program.
  • From 2013–18, 73,736 people in rural areas received access to electricity through renewable energy sources, which prevented 2,008 tons of greenhouse gas from entering atmosphere.
  • From 2013–17, an emergency safety net project reduced poverty among beneficiary households by 21%. 67,845 families, representing 390,465 people, received quarterly cash transfer.


  • Mozambique, with IDA’s support, strengthened the capacity of governance in mining and hydrocarbon sectors. In 2018, 16 mines and gas construction projects were subjected to annual technical inspections and seven mines were subjected to fiscal control. 2,322 people were benefited from this project, of whom 46% were women.


  • From 2014–18, 22,252 people benefited through increased crop yields and cropping intensity in selected existing irrigation site in Bago East, Nay Pyi Taw, Mandalay, and Sagaing regions. During the same period, 5,808 hectares were provided with irrigation and drainage services and 3,900 hectares of irrigable area rehabilitated.


Sierra Leone

  • Public revenues from the fisheries sector increased from $0.9 million in 2008 to $3.8 million in 2013, a 322 percent increase over 5 years, thanks to a program to curtail illegal fishing and establish conservation zones dedicated to local small-scale fishing.

Solomon Islands

  • From 2010–18, construction of community infrastructure employed 13,000 people from vulnerable communities and generated more than 785,851 days of work. 52% of the people employed were women and 60% were between the ages of 16 and 29. Over USD 3 million were paid in wages to many unemployed who worked an average of 59 days. Participants have found employment with vocational education centers and were engaged as supervisors on urban road projects.

South Sudan

  • From 2015–18, 53,290 people received cash-for-work, food-for-work, and temporary employment through a public works program. Four million days of work were created, of which 76% were for women.

    In 2017, 505,396 people benefited from an emergency food and nutrition project. 31,770 households were supported in resuming crop and livestock production in 2018.



  • From 2012–17, 315,246 people in poor communities were provided with greater access to socio-economic infrastructure; 12,754 people benefited through cash-for-work, food-for-work, and public works. During the same period, 39,831 students were enrolled in rehabilitated or newly constructed schools.
  • From 2013–17, 50,320 beneficiaries were provided with access to an improved water source and 47,550 children were provided with 11.6 million free meals.



  • From 2017-18, 2.5 million people were provided with access to community services, such as roads and irrigation. 220,094 women and children benefited from nutrition services.
  • From 2017–18, 1.5 million households, representing nine million people, were provided with emergency cash transfers, of whom 47% were women, to alleviate a sharp increase in the poverty rate following a crisis in Yemen in 2011.
  • From 2016–18, 6.8 million days of work were generated for 300,639 people receiving short-term employment, of whom 47% were youth, and the most vulnerable population received access to basic services, of whom 28% were women.
  • From 2017-18, 4,344 farmers adopted improved agricultural technology, of whom 1,550 were women. During the same time, 48,950 households resumed crop and livestock production and 4.9 million livestock were vaccinated.
  • From 2017-18, 1.7 million people in cholera-affected areas were provided with access to improved water sources and 725,000 people were vaccinated with oral cholera vaccine. During the same time, 14.6 million people were provided with essential health and nutrition services, 6.9 million children were immunized, 630,583 pregnant women received antenatal care during a visit to a health provider, and 143,148 births were attended by a skilled health professional.
  • Updated as of June 17, 2019

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