At the first IDA16 replenishment meeting held in March 2010, participants agreed that IDA16 should focus on development results as the overarching theme. In addition to this overarching theme, participants also agreed that gender, climate change, fragile states (henceforth referred to as “fragile and conflict affected countries” – FCCs) and crises response would be the “special themes” for IDA16.
- Gender: Addressing gender issues can help progress on all Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), including poverty reduction. Yet the progress of IDA countries towards gender-related MDG targets has been uneven across targets and has differed significantly across countries, regions and income groups – with FCCs lagging behind on all counts. IDA’s gender-related efforts during IDA16 focused on four areas: (i) scaling up gender mainstreaming and efforts on gender-related MDGs including through the preparation by all Bank regions of regional gender action plans and review of their implementation at the IDA16 Mid-Term Review (MTR), implementation of the reproductive health action plan (including follow-up with 52 priority countries with high maternal mortality rates and total - ii - fertility rates), completion of the Education Sector Strategy and subsequent implementation of a program for action with attention paid to gender issues in targeted countries, and improving integration of gender issues in CASs; (ii) strengthening the results framework for gender; (iii) intensifying capacity-building efforts; and (iv) articulating and disseminating the business case for gender mainstreaming around the 2012 World Development Report (WDR) on development and gender equity.
- Climate Change: Climate change presents an urgent challenge to the well-being of all countries and particularly to the poorest countries. Meeting the climate challenge involves timely support for appropriate projects, policies and institutions, with a view to ensuring that development investments are made climate-resilient. IDA aims to promote climate-resilient development by integrating knowledge, strategic work, investment and policy support and by leveraging finance from other sources. In particular, IDA would (i) build climate resilience and capture mitigation opportunities in core development and maximize the leveraging of specialized funds for climate change; and (ii) strengthen monitoring and reporting of IDA resources used for mitigation and adaptation.
- Fragile and Conflict-Affected Countries: FCCs account disproportionately for gaps in achieving the MDGs. In addition, political instability and armed violence in these countries can have negative spillover effects in neighboring countries. Successive IDA replenishments have proactively responded to the special needs and circumstances of these countries, including through enhanced operational and financial support, scaling up of activities and increased decentralization of staff. In this context, IDA 16 focused on the following activities: : (i) prepare a comprehensive assessment of financing for FCCs and specific proposals as warranted for consideration at the IDA16 MTR; (ii) complete an IEG evaluation of the Bank’s work in FCCs; (iii) revise the current Operational Policy (OP) 2.30 on Development Cooperation and Conflict; (iv) expand efforts to fully mainstream MDTFs for FCCs into the core Bank business; and (v) continue efforts to attract experienced staff, decentralize staff and decision making in fragile countries, and get the right balance of skills.