While millions are stepping out of poverty in developing countries, millions more live in countries where fragility, conflict and violence have trapped them in a cycle of poverty. Fragility, conflict and violence threaten to reverse development gains, often leading to forced displacement of populations, affecting them as well as their host countries. (Download ABCs of IDA - Fragile, Conflict and Violence in pdf format.)
But the International Development Association (IDA), the World Bank’s fund for the poorest, is making a difference. IDA supports countries affected by conflict and fragility by providing financing and the knowledge needed to rebuild resilient institutions and economies, reducing the risks of fragility and conflict, and by putting in place the building blocks people need to resume peaceful and productive lives.
Since 2000, IDA has provided more than $38.3 billion in support for fragile and conflict-affected states. IDA18 doubles resources to countries affected by fragility and conflict; $2 billion will be available to countries hosting large numbers of refugees. Assessments of the root causes of conflict and fragility are helping inform projects in 35 IDA countries.
Exiting fragility is possible, but it requires the creation of wellfunctioning institutions. IDA’s flexible, predictable, and countrybased model is particularly effective. IDA is a critical piece of the larger development equation providing knowledge and enhanced financing, serving as a platform for donor coordination (including the implementation of multidonor trust funds), and promoting transparency and accountability of both donors and states.
Despite overwhelming challenges, IDA’s support is helping countries in the transition from crisis and fragility to development. In Afghanistan, IDA’s support has helped create 52 million days of work for skilled and unskilled workers and helped more than 25,000 people develop vocational skills. A project in the Democratic Republic of Congo is helping raise awareness of and prevent sexual and gender-based violence. And in Liberia, 20,000 farming households received high-quality rice seed to avert hunger and revive the agricultural sector in the wake of the Ebola crisis. In the Great Lakes and Horn of Africa regions, IDA is providing support to host communities to help improve lives and access to services for refugees and internally displaced people.
The examples on the following pages illustrate how IDA-financed operations in fragile and conflictaffected states are making a difference. Be sure to see our other “ABCs” (achievements by country) of IDA, including highlights of our work in Africa, and on gender, climate, jobs and economic transformation, and governance and institution building at http://ida.worldbank.org/abcs.
- From 2003 to 2015, the National Solidarity Program and 31 partners, including IDA, worked through community development councils to identify and implement 86,000 small-scale reconstruction and development activities, including projects to improve water supply and sanitation, rural roads, irrigation, power, health, and education. The program has generated over 52 million days of work for skilled and unskilled workers and has helped establish 33,400 community development councils across Afghanistan that are democratically elected through secret ballot.
- 25,696 people benefited from a project to develop job skills and increase incomes for graduates of technical and vocational schools from 2013 to 2015.
- From 2011 to 2015, 434 small- and medium-sized enterprises received grants to develop their businesses, which has helped create 1,385 jobs.
- From 2011 to 2015, a hospital in Jalalabad increased the number of patients from less than 50 to more than 150 per day.
- 732 kilometers of tertiary roads and 825 meters of tertiary bridges were completed across Afghanistan from 2012 to 2015. Over the same time period, more than 3,000 kilometers of tertiary roads were maintained.
- The number of days needed to obtain a construction permit at a new one-stop shop dropped from 137 to 99 between 2012 and 2013.
- A project to increase agricultural productivity helped small farmers increase their yields to 4 tons of rice per hectare in 2015, up from 2½ tons per hectare in 2010. Banana yields increased to 22.7 tons per hectare from 9 tons over the same time period.
Central African Republic
- The Central African Republic Emergency Public Services Response Project aims to improve the capacity of the government to reestablish an operational government payroll and related financial management systems after the civil war. Results include an increase in revenue collections of 50 percent from 2014 to 2015. The increased funding allowed the government to rebuild service delivery functions after the crisis.
- 733,915 work days were created from 2015 to 2017 by a project to provide temporary employment and develop public infrastructure.
- 147,105 people benefited from food crop production as part of the Emergency Food Crisis Response and Agriculture Relaunch Project from 2014 to 2015. The project also distributed 5,005 metric tons of food and increased seed production by 371 metric tons.
- 327,843 people received access to a basic package of health, nutrition or reproductive health services from 2012 to 2015.
- 119,000 people were tested for HIV from 2000 to 2012, including more than 10,000 pregnant women, 2,000 teachers, and nearly 7,000 military personnel and their families.
- 1,023 teachers and 22 heads of school were recruited and trained; 3,000 new curricula were printed; and 178,500 textbooks, 5,596 school kits, and 5,130 table benches were distributed between 2007 and 2012.
- 2.6 million books were distributed to schools, 400 classrooms were built and equipped, 20,000 people were taught to read and write, and 11,700 community teachers were trained from 2003 to 2012.
- 123,500 people benefited from increased crop production from 2012 to 2015.
- More than 71,000 people have benefited directly from cash-for-work and community-based infrastructure projects with IDA emergency financing in response to the global crises and the local floods of 2012.
- As of 2015, an additional 61,800 people in urban areas were protected against periodic flooding thanks to rehabilitation and construction of urban infrastructure.
- 634 kilometers of rural roads were rehabilitated between 2012 and 2015.
- 18,000 former soldiers, armed individuals, and at-risk youth participated in economic reintegration activities from 2008 to 2012.
- 74 sub-prefecture offices were constructed, and 65 kilometers of rural roads were rehabilitated using labor-intensive methods from 2008 to 2012.
- 44 percent of HIV-infected pregnant women were receiving antiretroviral treatment in 2012 to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission, up from 0 in 2007.
Democratic Republic of Congo
- From 2014 to 2015, 3,845 survivors of sexual violence received holistic services, 3,244 received gynecological services, and 58,627 community members participated in sensitization and advocacy activities to improve awareness and knowledge of sexual and gender-based violence.
- 1.2 million people in urban areas were provided with access to improved drinking water from 2014 to 2015.
- 69,017 people benefited directly from the reconstruction of community infrastructure such as schools, water points and bridges in eastern Congo from February to December 2014.
- 500 villages benefited from the construction of rural infrastructure, including 1,765 kilometers of roads, from 2011 to 2015.
- Testing and treatment was provided for 9,776 people hospitalized for cholera in 98 communes from October 2014 to September 2015. 19,320 household visits were conducted as part of awareness-raising campaigns and 19,800 houses and 3,515 latrines were decontaminated over the same time period.
- From 2012 to 2015, 18,000 people benefited from solar-powered street lights in the Port-au-Prince metropolitan area.
- 372,516 tuition waivers were financed for underserved students to attend private schools in 2015, up from 264,434 in 2014.
- From 2011 to 2015, project interventions resulted in 2,669 additional qualified primary school teachers.
- From 2013 to 2015, 14,388 people in targeted neighborhoods, including more than 8,000 women, participated in programs to prevent violence as part of efforts to create safer communities in Honduras. The project is supporting nine initiatives that address psychosocial support, violence prevention, and community-based interventions.
- From 2008 to 2015, the number of days needed to complete a record of purchase or sale of property dropped from 30 days to about 10 days with the help of a project to improve tenure security and develop the real estate market in post-conflict Kosovo.
- 20,000 farming households received high-quality rice seed to avert hunger and revive the agricultural sector in the wake of the Ebola crisis.
- 10,800 hours of on-the-job training were provided from 2011 to 2015 through a project to improve and maintain roads.
- In 2015, more than 2.9 million students in Madagascar benefited from projects financed by IDA and the Global Partnership for Education.
- 762,882 people were provided with access to a basic package of health, nutrition or reproductive health services from 2012 to 2014.
- 149,376 children were immunized between 2012 and 2015 and 74,593 births were attended by skilled health personnel between 2012 and 2014.
- As of end of September 2015, 43,613 households, representing 349,031 people, were benefiting from cash transfers and accompanying measures. More than half of the beneficiaries are women and children.
- 1.6 million households in urban areas received access to electricity between 2009 and 2015, benefiting 3.7 million people.
- 45 percent of the rural population had access to an all-season road in 2015, up from 32 percent in 2007.
- From 2013 to 2015, 850,000 people in 1,729 villages benefited from 1,800 basic infrastructure and services projects, including projects to improve school facilities and village access roads.
- 37,000 students received cash payments in the 2014-15 school year to prevent at-risk students from dropping out.
- From 2008 to 2014, 14,300 families of people who died in conflict and 4,500 widows received cash payments and 14,770 people affected by conflict received skills training and job placement services.
- Public revenues from the fisheries sector increased from $0.9 million in 2008 to $3.8 million in 2013, a 322 percent increase over 5 years, thanks to a program to curtail illegal fishing and establish conservation zones dedicated to local small-scale fishing.
- From 2010 to 2016, construction of community infrastructure employed 12,000 young people from vulnerable communities and created more than 664,000 days of employment in the Solomon Islands. 60 percent of the people employed were women and 53 percent were between the ages of 16 and 29.
- Access to telephones in the Solomon Islands increased to 60 percent in 2014, up from 8 percent in 2010. The cost of a three-minute mobile call to a local number dropped to 13 cents in 2014, down from $1.20 in 2010.
- From 2013 to 2016, 80,000 people benefited from 29 community infrastructure projects in South Sudan, including the construction and rehabilitation of clinics, schools, and boreholes.
- 1.2 million long-lasting insecticide-treated malaria nets were purchased and/or distributed in South Sudan in 2014, up from 126,451 in 2012.
- 374,206 children ages 6 to 59 months received a dose of vitamin A in 2013, a 2,000 percent increase since 2011.
- 47,287 children under 12 months in South Sudan received the DPT3 vaccination to protect against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus in 2013, up from 16,986 in 2011.
- Between 1999 and 2014, 283,000 people benefited from a project to improve livelihoods in communities affected by conflict. The project helped repair over 2,000 kilometers of rural roads and increase irrigated land by 54,000 hectares. More than 100,000 families received low-interest loans to support farming or small businesses.
- From 2012 to 2015, 3,275 people benefited from the construction of 90 schools with 248 classrooms, 13 health centers, 44 boreholes, four community latrines, two rural roads and crossing structures, and two market sheds.
- 14,016 people received financial assistance between 2013 and 2015 as part of a social safety net program to combat child malnutrition in Togo.
- From 2013 to 2014, 2.35 million people received cash transfers to alleviate a sharp increase in the poverty rate from 43 percent in 2009 to 55 percent in 2012 following a crisis in Yemen in 2011. More than half of the recipients were women.
- From 2012 to 2015, 101,042 people accessed improved primary health care services, 121,193 people had access to improved water sources, and 41,039 people had access to improved sanitation facilities.
- From 2012 to 2016, two IDA-supported polio immunization campaigns vaccinated 4.3 million children under 5 years old in 21 governorates in Yemen. The Bank has also supported routine, integrated outreach sessions to provide immunization, mother and child health, and nutrition and disease control services, as well as health education to communities with no access to fixed medical facilities.
1 As of March 11, 2015, the security situation in Yemen deteriorated to the degree that the World Bank could no longer exercise fiduciary or management oversight, and disbursement has been suspended on all Bank-funded projects. While the suspension remains, where possible and under emergency procedures, arrangements have been made with development partners to resume funding to key projects.